Human beings are rational creatures that exist in complex social institutions. They characterize consciousness and the ability to comprehend issues ranging from the social structures, relations and the institutions of governance, religion, and philosophical principles. The rationality fragments the individuals into broad spectrums of emotion, physical and mental expressions, and the discernments. Besides, the society shapes and nurtures the highlighted three proportions of the human capability. The historical, philosophical and the religious components of the society also influence the five human senses. The effects show in the way human beings feel, observe and perceive different issues. Usually, the morals, experiences, social, and religious expressions determine the personality of the individuals. As such, gender roles and social relations that determine the broad concerns of hierarchy and equality emanate from the profound aspirations and structures of the contract theory. Philosophical, religious and the social principles offer divergent explanations for the concept of hierarchy and equality in ensuring social order.
Hierarchy entails the structural organization that stipulates the order of ranking populaces depending on the power or social eminence. Historically, the ancient societies emphasized the significance of hierarchical systems according to the order of significance. In the biblical perspective as shown in the book of Job, hierarchy existed in the manner God communicated with man, family relations and the care of children. The Book of Job exemplifies that God was the highest authority and the family worshiped or lived according to his values. He also provided the daily needs including wealth. Similarly, Plato’s Apology indicates the values of the just and unjust society. It explains the importance of hierarchy in ensuring the social order and active participation of the individuals. Therefore, the hierarchy in this era placed individuals into the broad groups of the ruling class, the guardian angels, and the working class. It also stipulated specific role to the persons. Broadly, the hierarchy represents the order of nature comprising the idea of existence, reality, and the categories of being. Hence, it concerns the concept of entities, a grouping of needs, and the characteristics. Equality, on the other hand, articulates the expansive components of social, moral, political, and legal principles of the human environment. Thus, as represented in the book of Job, the Plato’s Apology and Dhammapada provide differently, yet complementing explanations for hierarchy and equality in the social environment. Arguably, they entail the inspirational values, the natural capabilities, and vulnerability.
Equality according to the mentioned philosophical and social principles refers to the accordance of same status for every person in the society. These comprise the basic rights but also extend to the health equity, freedom of speech, movements, and participation in the social events. The Plato’s Apology indicated that a society that promoted equality had particular checks to govern the roles and behaviors. Essentially, Plato expressed that every individual had the capability to live or be governed by one person. Therefore, the existence of the ruling elite, the guardian, and the working class was a tactic of ensuring equality. The Book of Job and The Dhammapada share similar sentiments in the Buddhist and Christian environments. In both instances, the scriptures aimed to promote morality and order.
Plato’s ideology characterizes the ancient Greek society. It explains the concept of the just and unjust city in the ancient Greek that aimed to provide social order and equality. According to Plato, a just city offers every person the opportunity to perform a role. The views define clear roles ranging from the ruling elite to the subjects. Principally, the ruling elite has the responsibility of offering rational governance structures and guidance. The next category according to Plato comprises the guardian whose roles entail safeguarding the society from internal and external enemies that may derail social coherence. Finally, the working classes as highlighted in the hierarchy of social ladder have the duty to provide services and commodities that support the overall sustainability of the city. Therefore, Plato’s view elaborates the aspect of hierarchy and the associated equality in regards to roles, expectations, and equality (Plato 23). Correspondingly, the view recognizes that all sectors of the society should observe and perform their roles to create a perfect harmony. Likewise, Plato elaborates equality in the view that every person has the capability to be governed by another individual (ruling class). His methodology also alienates particular roles to the different categories of the society. Even though the Plato’s perspective envisions creating a social order, it is also a debatable subject because it promotes superiority and inferiority of particular groups. All factors constant, the principles nurtured the current society through the clarification. It illuminates the order of the rational universe and the people’s special abilities to reason and make deductive conclusions. An analysis of the social hierarchy by Plato also emphasizes the significance and authority of the ruler. He or she is the decisive object and has the powers to assign roles for the subjects.
Equally, Dhammapada entails an assortment of the Buddha verses and the scriptures. The verses were crucial in the primeval communities because they simplified the Buddhist scriptures and taught the about righteousness. The verses express the concepts of equality and hierarchy among the Buddhists. In his perspective, human equality represents a crucial pillar for the social structure that espouses the idea of justice and fairness. Therefore, the equality entails the provision and justifications for the just hearing of cases. The collection of the verses in the Dhammapada suggests ethical factors for bestowing equal rights. The teachings also promote equality by teaching the provision of same opportunities to every person in the social sphere regardless of the background. Hence, the Dhammapada progresses the comprehensiveness of the society including all other living beings because they possess life and intrinsic values (Muller 23). In the order of hierarchy, The Dhammapada suggests that individuals are equal because they are all people. The capability to think rationally and possession of the senses qualifies their equality in the social cycle. He also extends the classification to the other living beings and explains that even though they lack the ability to compete or match human beings, they are special creatures that also require fair handling. Hence, he concludes the concern of hierarchy by establishing an ideology that unequal treatment of persons is not a representation injustice. Nonetheless, it portrays the abuse, unkindness, and misinterpretation of the human reality.
The Book of Job
The book of job provides chronological events and the biblical perspective of equality and hierarchy. Principally, the book highlights the roles of the parent (father and mother) in the upbringing of children in harmony with the decrees of the God. According to Job, the father has the responsibility of engaging and providing opportunities for growth including acquiring wealth. However, in the order of hierarchy, God is the uppermost being that every person should accord maximum respect and adoration. The job also exemplifies that God gives and takes away the Earthly belongings because he is the overall owner. Therefore, God requires humans to express humility for their services regardless of the challenges or obstacles. It is also evident that every person is an equal being before the God.
Conceivably, Plato’s Apology, the Book of Job, and Dhammapada provide the explanations of equality and hierarchy in the contexts of the social and religious views. They coherently agree on basic ideologies regarding the likeness of the human beings and the capability of the individuals to reason. Even though they represent the divergent opinions, the principal information is that humankind is equal and exists in a social cycle guided by the hierarchical institutions.