One of the most frequently debatable questions in modern America is: whether affirmative action should be continued? There are numerous opinions for and against the issue; however, it is still difficult to come to a common decision. The present paper deals with the discussion of pros and cons of affirmative action that finally conclude whether it should be continued in modern time America.
The beginning of affirmative action refers to the 1960’s as one of the means to finish discrimination against African Americans and all minorities. Migration of people of different minorities and ethnic groups to workplaces, universities, colleges seemed to be the best way to diversify the nation. However, the Black population, despite being free from slavery, continued to face with the danger of segregation and discrimination. Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned tall the kinds of segregation and discrimination, it was not enough to deal with the problem and the Congress mandated the adoption of the affirmative action program for desegregation.
Pros and Cons of Affirmative action and opinions of the proponents and opponents
After the implementation of the Affirmative action, there were numerous court cases, where black students and workers litigated their denials from colleges and workplaces because of discrimination. These cases demonstrated that despite of the claims of its significance and necessity, Affirmative action is nothing more than the experiment to test the power of law (Ui-chun Yang 157).
In order to give the reasons whether the Affirmative action should be continued, it is necessary to evaluate its effectiveness in conjunction with other policies and evaluate the progress of this program. The supporters of the Affirmative action state that the success of the program is witnessed in the 1970s, when the increased number of representatives of minorities has been employed in several job categories. They also admit the rapid growth of enrollment and completion rates of the Black and minority students in colleges and universities, as well improvement of their preparation and decrease of the feeling of segregation. Proponents of the program state that this progress is attributed to the success of Affirmative action. In addition to the influence of the program on the sphere of education, Affirmative action had positive effect on the development of the minority business growth in the areas of business services, finance and real estate (Ui-chun Yang 157). Proponents tend to admit that affirmative action has positive influence on the general mood and attitude to the Black and minority in society.
Although, there are positive outcomes of the program, visible in different spheres of life, critics of the Affirmative action still argue that even if there are certain benefits, they belong to people, who are either advantaged or middle class (1 Ui-chun Yang 58). Therefore, they assert that the program is useless, because these people may advance in life without its help. However, these statements are contradicted by the facts that high numbers of minority students, enrolled in the medical schools, are representatives of lower class from poor families. Moreover, the gains of many students in further occupations are not related to their advantageous status. It proves that the affirmative action gave the green light to the minority and Black students and provided them with the opportunity to demonstrate their talents, which have been long hidden because of discrimination.
There are other opinions of the Affirmative action critics, who assume that the results of the program belong to the most motivated in the less advantaged group, therefore, this state program is nothing more than simple competition, in which every minority person can reach the desired goals. They add that the Affirmative action is not enough for those who are deprived of educational and material resources. Therefore, the inability of the program to provide people with the most required resources is its biggest disadvantage. Moreover, the critics assert that the success of the Blacks in educational and career spheres is nothing more than the remedy of the authorities for the past discrimination.
Despite affirmative action has proven its effectiveness, there are more cons and criticism about it. Thus, it is stated that courts will no longer be so friendly to the deprived and discriminated persons, who try to find social approval and acceptance. Modern world has become colorblind, where white and minority workers are provided with the same resources and opportunities, so there are no needs to demonstrate strict balance between the two groups. In addition, the studies of the Urban Institute of the treatment of white and black seekers of job demonstrate that discrimination remains an institutional problem (Ui-chun Yang 157). Hence, there is no need to continue the Affirmative action.
Affirmative action has long been the matter of contradictions and disputes. Many people, opponents and proponents of the program argue whether it should be continued or there is no need in it. Some advantages of the Affirmative action include wider opportunities for the Black and minority people. At the same time, one of the obvious cons is that it does not allow evaluate real skills and opportunities of these people, because of the strict regulations, presupposed by the program you can read more about this in the essays on affirmative action. Although, there are some facts that prove effectiveness of the Affirmative action for the minority people in the spheres of employment and education, the program is considered unnecessary and doomed to cessation, because discrimination is impossible to eliminate and it will always be the stepping stone in many cases, related to race and ethnicity. Affirmative action measures are available as a major corrective tool to respond and deal with the acts of discrimination and bias, however, they must be unconscious to color differences. In other words, the problem of discrimination should be eliminated in the minds of people, while affirmative action is unable to remove bias from the society.